“Fantasy is a necessary ingredient in living, it’s a way of looking at life through the wrong end of a telescope, and that enables you to laugh at life’s realities”– Dr. Seuss
As early as 1877, artist Frederick W. Rose set a trend for satire and propaganda in cartography with his ‘Octopus Map’.
The map, published during the Russian-Turkish war (1877-78), was a reflection of Rose’s pro-Turkish stance. In the map, Russia is the fearsome, ‘evil’ Octopus, spreading its tentacles, causing havoc all over Europe. Could the choice of using the octopus indicate Russia’s greed and ambition for territory? Possibly! It is also interesting to note, that Russia is the only country depicted as an animal. Take a look at this detail from the map.
You’d notice a religious Ireland (holding a cross-ornament) following Britain, with Home Rule on its mind. Does that remind you of Annie Besant and the Home Rule movement that inspired India? Britain itself is labelled with terms like “Suez” and “India” : a reference to the colonies and the recently constructed Suez Canal that had furthered Britain’s interest and profits from trade in India. This war was therefore important to the British : if Russia won over the Ottoman Empire and gained control over the Suez, Britain would stand to lose a precious lot.
Satirical maps were not uncommon in Europe. 200 years before Frederick Rose’s map, this creation by the German cartographer Johannes Putsch became popular for its depiction of Europe as a queen.
Geographical fun : You might enjoy this atlas featuring twelve maps of European countries, each with a national stereotype based on the outline and shape of the country. Each map is accompanied by a short verse describing the authors’ creation.
The ‘serio-comic’ maps became a trend in the 20th century as excellent “explainers” of the political situation that was unravelling in the world.
This was a period of momentous change and also the most internationally turbulent : Two World Wars, the Russia-Japan war, a civil war in Russia – it was a time when the global landscape was marked by conflict. These maps were meant to influence public sentiment and contributed towards shaping stereotypes.
However, it wasn’t just the Europeans who were making maps. The Japanese had their own version!
The illustration of the Great European War (First World War) by Ryōzō Tanaka : A humorous atlas of the world
In the map, Japan emphasises its superiority by depicting itself as a Samurai – all other countries get an animal avatar. Africa, however, does not seem to have any bearing on Japan is “sewn up”.
It is a fun exercise to try and guess the significance of each animal and go deeper into Japan’s relationship with the world! Which animals (countries) are seen as aggressive?
China looks back at its past (reminiscing the power of the Qing Dynasty) through a magnifying glass, while Russia sheds its Octopus avatar and eyes Europe as a powerful bear. The US is shown as a badger with a gun, observing the world from a distance. Interestingly, in another serio-comic War Map by Tanaka, the US holds a telescope – focusing on South East Asia – as well as binoculars to keep up on the European conflict.
Pictorial maps continued to be popular throughout the second World War. However, as photography gained prominence, this genre slowly faded out. Here are some more to enjoy!
In the 21st century, we wish we’d get our update on international relations in a creative way, but this is all we have: 😅
Tell us in the comments:
Why do you think India has been depicted as an elephant?”